TxDOT rail safety investigators conduct safety inspections of railroad facilities and equipment. They also monitor compliance with both state and federally-mandated safety regulations in the areas of hazardous materials, operating practices, motive power and equipment, signal and train control, and track.

Texas is participating in the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Rail State Safety Participation Program under 49 CFR Part 212 which allows states to enter into an agreement with FRA for the delegation of specified authority. This includes investigative and surveillance authority regarding all or any part of Federal railroad safety laws.